Photo: Ukrainian soldiers learn battle skills such as first aid from U.S. Army troops at the International Peacekeeping and Security Center in western Ukraine. Source: http://www.voanews.com/a/lviv-embraces-us-training-for-ukrainian-soldiers-/3086642.html
Ironically, with veterans I know, first aid came to a discussion last year. I originally started writing this article earlier this year on Military first aid. Since today is Veterans day 2016, I decided to finish it.
Salute to Veteran’s day!
What is the object of first aid? From: http://www.mydaforms.com/study/FirstAid.html
To stop bleeding
First aid bleeding under military is:
- Field dressing
- Manual pressure
- Digital pressure
Standards: Attempted to prevent a casualty from going into shock by:
- Correctly positioning the casualty
- Loosening binding clothes
- Calming and reassuring ;
- and providing shade from direct sunlight during hot weather, or covering to prevent body heat loss during cold weather.
First Aid for Pain (By Chris Woolston, M.S.)
“When treating an injury, relieving pain should also be a top priority.”
- Prompt treatment for pain will make an injured person feel more calm and comfortable.
- Pain relief may also make it possible for the person to move safely on her own — a handy thing if the nearest phone is miles away.
- Pain can also be a guide to treatment.
Woolston states stocking a first aid kit with:
– Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen.
– Instant-activating cold packs to treat the pain of insect bites, bruises, and scrapes.
– Cold packs can also be applied to sprains and strains.
– Gauze, adhesive tape, and scissors will make it possible to properly dress burns, and elastic wraps, such as
– ACE bandages, can be used to wrap injuries to muscles, joints, or bones.First- and second-degree burns.
– Run cool water over the burn to soothe the pain. (Don’t use ice or cold packs, because they could slow blood flow and make the injury worse.)
– Cover the burn with sterile gauze. Sprains, strains, dislocations, and fractures.
– RICE — rest, ice, compression, and elevation — is the best first aid strategy for painful injuries to muscles, joints, and bone injuries. Bruises and scrapes.
– Gently clean areas with broken skin with cool water and cover them with a bandage.
– Hold a cold pack on the area to reduce pain and swelling.
– Minor cuts simply need to be washed with soap and water, treated with an antibiotic ointment, and covered with a clean bandage.
– Apply pressure if the bleeding doesn’t stop on its own after a few minutes.
– Seek prompt medical help if the cut is still bleeding after 10 minutes, if the wound is very dirty, or if you think stitches will be necessary.
– Wash the area with soap and water, then apply ice or a cold pack to reduce pain and swelling.
– Apply a cold compress, and use topical steroid ointments or oral antihistamines to relieve itching if needed.
– Apply a 1 percent hydrocortisone ointment, which is available over the counter, if the itching is significant, or an antihistamine. (Diphenhydramine (Benadryl))
Infections are a primary cause of concern in first aid. From: First Aid Care for Surgical Wound Infections.
Care for surgical wound infections will usually require antibiotic therapy. Over-the-counter or prescription pain killers may also be recommended. Depending on the infection, the doctor may need to remove the sutures and drain the wound. A debridement procedure may be necessary to remove dead tissue preventing healing.
Photo: SJMO consumer sends on her son’s motorcycle burns on his legs. Miracle oil she applied to the wound and she sent second photo 10 days later to post on facebook page:
The potential for SJMO product to assist as a supplemental addition to first aid for the Military referring to the above needs to stop bleeding can be referenced to a previous article regarding wounds and burns.1 The article covers wounds and a list of the medical references:
All open wounds are contaminated with bacteria, sometimes leading to wound infection which is a scourge to patients and caregivers, with some estimates as high as 30% of wounds affected.2
Wound treatment methods
Development of wound treatment methods were developed in 2001. At that time there were no guidelines for palliative wound care, and wound healing was seen as an unrealistic goal of treatment in this patient population.3 What are general pain methods? Nothing in the literature was found to either support or contradict use of lidocaine in the wound bed for pain relief, yet it is known that topical lidocaine can decrease pain.4
Topical antiseptics and antimicrobials
The NCBI and Pubmed medical journals show although it is established through in vitro studies that many of the antiseptic agents have cytotoxic properties. (Toxic to cells)5
Antimicrobials are available in various forms for topical use and the most commonly used ones are Bacitracin A, Neomycin, Fucidin, Mupirocin, Retapamulin. These serve as moist dressings. However, because of its extensive use the incidence of resistance to mupirocin (Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection) is also increasing, to the rate of 11-65%.6
If we look at essential oils, and specifically the ones in the SJMO product, compare medical sources.
Wintergreen Oil is 85%-99% methyl salicylate which is aspirin-like and can contribute to pain relief as promoted in commercial literature.7
Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and wound healing
Myrrh (Commiphora molmol) has been widely used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healing commercial product.8 This complimentary study also discusses the use of myrrh in wound management.9 Myrrh oil has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in wound management.10 Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different extracts of Commiphora myrrha.11,12
Frankincense has been shown to have wound healing, anti-ulcer, and anti-diarrheal properties. Frankincense was used for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis.13
Lavender shows evidence on the influence of essential oils on wound healing and their potential application in clinical practice. It focuses mainly on tea tree, lavender, chamomile, thyme and ocimum oils.14
Antibacterial, antifungal, relaxing, antidepressive, burns and insect bites
Among the PubMed claims made for lavender oil are that is it antibacterial, antifungal, carminative (smooth muscle relaxing), sedative, antidepressive and effective for burns and insect bites.15
This study on PubMed compared the effects of lavender oil (Lavandula angustifolia) through expression of growth factors in a rat model of wound healing. Wound closure progressed more rapidly in the TENS and lavender oil groups than in the control and other study groups.16
Anti-microbial and anti-fungal
A natural polymeric composite films made of essential oils (EOs) dispersed in sodium alginate (NaAlg) matrix, with remarkable anti-microbial and anti-fungal properties. Namely, lavender, peppermint, eucalyptus and other oils were encapsulated in the films as potential active substances.17
Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: data suggest that components common to the two oils are worthy of focus to identify the actives underlying the neuronal depressant and anti-agitation activities reported.18
Labor/pregnancy episiotomy wound care
Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial. This study suggests application of lavender essential oil instead of povidone-iodine for episiotomy wound care.19
Antimicrobial activity on MSSA and MRSA
The antimicrobial activity of high-necrodane and other lavender oils on methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA).20
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic
Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.21
Pain relief on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea
Lavender (Lavandula officinalis), clary sage (Salvia sclarea) and marjoram used. All outpatients used the cream daily to massage their lower abdomen from the end of the last menstruation continuing to the beginning of the next menstruation.22
Pathogens, pain and wound treatment
Geranium oil In this study the tested geranium oil was efficacious against Gram-negative pathogens responsible for problems with wound treatment. The results suggest that geranium oil may be considered an effective component of therapy in the case of frequent recurrences of infections caused by resistant pathogens.23
The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model. Geranium used with two others. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapors as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection.24
Geranium has shown temporary relief of neuralgia pain.25
Clary sage oil may be applied to treat wounds and skin infection.26
Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.27
Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wistar rats.28
Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.29
We would like to see if we can get the funding to do a project with the Military and our SJMO. We would hope to do a trial test one day on a CAM therapy, and definitely to discuss more on hopeful projects.
2.Lindholm C. Pressure Ulcers and Infection-Understanding Clinical Features. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2003;49(5): 4-7. – See more at: http://www.woundsresearch.com/article/palliative-wound-treatment-promotes-healing#sthash.gcCu3Nsi.dpuf
3.Rinne C. Laying the foundation: the multidisciplinary approach to program development. Paper presented at: Southwest Missouri State University, Four-Day Wound Management Workshop; September 2001; Warrensburg, MO. – See more at: http://www.woundsresearch.com/article/palliative-wound-treatment-promotes-healing#sthash.gcCu3Nsi.dpuf
4.Christensen T, Thorum T, Kubiak E. Lidocaine analgesia for removal of wound vacuum-assisted closure dressings: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. J Orthop Trauma. 27(2):107-112 – See more at: http://www.woundsresearch.com/article/palliative-wound-treatment-promotes-healing#sthash.gcCu3Nsi.dpuf
5.Lineaweaver W, Howard R, Soucy D, Mc Morris S, Freeman J, Crain C, et al. Topical antimicrobial toxicity.Arch Surg.1985;120:267–70. [PubMed]
6.Mathieu et al., 2006; Menke et al., 2007 Wintergreen essential oil same as birch? www.experience-essential-oils.com/wintergreen-essential-oil.html. – See more at: http://www.woundsresearch.com/article/palliative-wound-treatment-promotes-healing#sthash.gcCu3Nsi.dpuf Curr Med Chem. 2003 May;10(10):813-29.
7.Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Kalemba D, Kunicka A.SourceInstitute of General Food Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Poland.
8.Effect of myrrh (Commiphora molmol) on leukocyte levels before and during healing from gastric ulcer or skin injury http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19995243
9.Integrating complementary and alternative medicine: use of myrrh in wound management. Walsh ME 1, Reis D, Jones T. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20709267
10.Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Commiphora molmol extract (Myrrh), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4576796/
11.Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different extracts of Commiphora myrrha. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21167270
12.Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of different extracts of Commiphora myrrha. Source: Jiangsu Key Laboratory for TCM Formulae Research, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, PR China., A review of the efficacy of traditional Iranian medicine for inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4504–14. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924999/
13.Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, et al. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: A randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2013;52:1408–17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4175880/
14.The influence of essential oils on the process of wound healing: a review of the current evidence, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17722522
15.Biological activities of lavender essential oil. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12112282
16.A Comparison Study of Growth Factor Expression following Treatment with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, Saline Solution, Povidone-Iodine, and Lavender Oil in Wounds Healing http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23861704
17.All-natural composite wound dressing films of essential oils encapsulated in sodium alginate with antimicrobial properties. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24211443
18.Pharmacological profile of essential oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18957173
19.Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21168115
20.The antimicrobial activity of high-necrodane and other lavender oils on methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19249919
21.Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of lavandula angustifolia mill. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89(1), 67-71.(Lavender), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378874103002344
22.Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22435409
23.The antibacterial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from difficult-to-heal wounds http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290961
24.The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15555788
25.Temporary relief of postherpetic neuralgia pain with topical geranium oil. American J of Medicine, 115, 586-587. The antibacterial activity of geranium oil against Gram-negative bacteria isolated from difficult-to-heal wounds. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24290961
26.The effect of clary sage oil on staphylococci responsible for wound infections. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Wounds+clary+sage+oil
27.Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species Euge´ nia Pinto,1 Luı´s Vale-Silva,1 Carlos Cavaleiro2 and Lı´gia Salgueiro2, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589904 SAA no. 8
28.Phytochemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wistar rats http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=ical+composition+of+Cymbopogon+citratus+and+Eucalyptus+citriodora+essential+oils+and+their+anti-inflammator
29.Antibacterial activity of the essential oils from the leaves ofEucalyptus globulusagainst Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609378
Thygerson, Alton L., Thygerson, Steven M., and Thygerson.Matthew L. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). Wilderness First Aid Field Guide. Jones and Bartlett. 2006
Duke University Medical Center. Stocking a first-aid kit. http://www.dukemednews.org/news/healthtip.php?id=5710
National Safety Council. First Aid & CPR. http://www.nsc.org/safety_home/FirstAidCPR/Pages/Firstaid_CPR.aspx
Arthritis Foundation. First aid with R.I.C.E. http://www.arthritis.org/resources/SIP/RICE.asp
Massachusetts General Hospital. Basic burn care/first aid burn treatment. http://www.massgeneral.org/burns/patients/
Mayo Clinic. Burns: first aid. January 2005. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-burns/FA00022
The Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide. How to splint a fracture. http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/firstaid/splint.shtml
Mayo Clinic. Dislocated shoulder when to seek medical advice. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/dislocated-shoulder/DS00597/DSECTION=5
American Academy of Family Physicians. Cuts, scrapes, and stitches: caring for wounds. http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/healthy/firstaid/after-injury/041.html
Mayo Clinic. Insect bites and stings: first aid. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-insect-bites/FA00046
Nemours Foundation. Insect stings and bites. http://kidshealth.org/parent/firstaid_safe/emergencies/insect_bite.html
Mayo Clinic. Cuts and Scrapes: First Aid. January 2008. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-cuts/FA00042Medical research