Got Pain? You better read this!

Disclaimer: Information within this site is for educational purposes only. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration has not evaluated statements about the product efficacy. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.  Consult your physician before using for advice.

Pain has many identities.  Some have joint pain, or migraines, and there are past articles on those.  See:

Different pains in this article are Chronic pain, and specifically Neurological pain, or Neuropathy and Spinal paralysis.

I have Jiu-jitsu students or friends over the years due to pinched nerves, injuries and other causes develop neuropathy.  I found a research journal on essential oils and neuropathy.  Most of you reading this already know this, but for those that don’t, my wife and I invented the product St. Jude’s Miracle oil TM.  The product is a proprietary trade secret of 9 essential oils originally designed to relieve pain for athletes.  I have seen Neurological pain with new students, and new clients with pre-existing neuropathy.  Let’s break down a few points on pain.

Source: Dawn Langley-Brady RN, MSN, CHPN, Advanced Graduate Paper for The East West School of Herbal and Aromatic Studies


Chronic pain

Chronic pain affects 1.5 billion people worldwide with 116 million of those people residing in the United States of America.1

Pain is divided into two categories:

Nociceptive pain, which includes visceral and somatic pain.

Neuropathic pain.

Of those 116 million people suffering from chronic pain, approximately four million people in the United States of America are currently suffering from neuropathic pain.2

Neuropathic pain is defined as a pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and can be further divided into central and peripheral neuropathic pain.3


According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (neuropathic pain is caused by physical trauma or injury, systemic diseases, autoimmune disorders, infections and can be inherited (NINDS, 2011).4

Systemic diseases causing neuropathic pain include:

Renal disease, heart and respiratory disease, endocrine diseases such as diabetes metabolic disorders, hormonal imbalances, toxins, connective tissue and inflammatory disorders, alcoholism, vitamin deficiencies, tumors (malignant and benign) and repetitive stress.

Infections causing neuropathic pain include:

Human immunodeficiency virus, herpes varicellazoster, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Lyme disease, diphtheria, leprosy and bacterial and viral infections.

Some neuropathies are caused by inflammation resulting from immune system disorders include:

Fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, or acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia and multifocal motor neuropathy. Neuropathic pain can also be caused by a hereditary genetic abnormality, genetic mutations or by no known cause (idiopathic).

Current Treatment

The Cleveland Clinic describes neuropathic pain and treatments:

1.Tricyclic antidepressants or over the counter pain relievers, and anticonvulsants

2.Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as Cymbalta and Effexor XR.

3.When those no longer work, opiates are prescribed.  Opiates often used are Oxycontin, Oxycodone, Morphine Sulfate.

4.Alternatives less used are: TENS unit, acupuncture, aromatherapy, biofeedback, hand and foot baths, diet therapy, exercise, guided imagery, herbal remedies, infrared light therapy, massage, physical therapy, reflexology, Reiki, Yoga and more.5

Many Jiu-jitsu practitioners, athletes or general public generally have neck pain, usually in the cervical disk area, and a lot of those are rolling off your necks during the years of training, and of course those are also related to malnutrition where the collagen levels in the disks degenerate.

I know so many fellow black belts that develop tingling, or nerve pain, chronic tightness in the neck or shoulder areas among others.  Langley-Brady’s research shows different essential oils used, but I will specify more in the direction of the oils in our Miracle oil product specifically for Neuropathy/neuralgia and medical research in the ncbi or pubmed.

Research on Mentha piperita (Peppermint oil)

Peppermint oil has shown anti-nociceptive effects (reducing sensitivity to painful stimuli) against induced writhing and thermal stimulation in laboratory rats as well as anti-inflammatory properties for induced ear edema and granulomas in study rats.6

Menthol, the primary alcohol in Mentha x piperita, is the active ingredient in the over the counter product Eucalyptamint.  A research study on Eucalyptamint, was conducted in 1991 and found up to four times an increase in cutaneous blood flow and skin and muscle temperatures along with diminished pain at the site of application which lasted upwards of forty-five minutes.7

Research on Pelargonium x asperum (Geranium oil)

A research study of an over the counter homeopathic remedy approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Neuragen PN, showed a reduction of at least fifty percent of pain reported by fifty-six percent of those study participants diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (“Neuragen PN,” 2010, p. 5).

Neuragen PN contains a blend of six homeopathic substances and five essential oils.  The five oils used are:

Geranium oil, Lavender oil, Bergamot oil, tea tree oil, and eucalyptus oil.8

In 2006, a Japanese research study show the effectiveness of geranium essential oil on both acute and chronic inflammatory processes, significant reduction of inflammation and prevention of arthritis was found.9

A Korean study in 2011 using an aromatherapy blend with massage for pain relief of menstrual cramping. The study used a five percent dilution of the essential oils of cinnamon, clary sage, geranium, ginger and marjoram in a base of almond oil. The study group showed great reduction in pain without re-dosing unlike the needed re-dosing of the control group participants who received acetaminophen.10

Dr. Jane Buckle, PhD. recommends, amongst many, the use of essential oils of Piper nigrum, Mentha x piperita (Peppermint oil) and Rosmarinus officinalis and for children – Pelargonium graveolens.11

Mentha x piperita (Peppermint oil) for analgesic use for headaches and a blend of Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus limon and Juniperus communis for an allover massage oil for pain.12

Jade Shutes recommends blends with any of the following oils for pain reduction in patients with Fibromyalgia: Piper nigrum, Betula lenta, Matricaria recutita, Chamaemelum nobile, Metha x piperita (Peppermint oil), Rosmarinus officinalis and more.13

Valerie Ann Worwood recommends Lavendula agustifolia (Lavender), Chamaemelum nobile, Eugenia carophyllata (Clove bud) and Mentha x piperita (Peppermint oil) for neuralgia.14

In August 2006, studies found Mentha x piperita (Peppermint oil) to have analgesic and anesthetic effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as relaxing the gastrointestinal tract and having anti-tumoral, antiviral and antibacterial properties.15

In 2010, Iranian researchers found Mentha x piperita (Peppermint oil) to be effective against E. Coli, S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginose, S. faecalis and Klebsiella pneumonia in addition to being a potent anti-oxidant and cytotoxic to the human tumor cell line.16

Geranium essential oil is widely prized generally for its astringent, hemostatic, diuretic, antiseptic, antidepressant, tonic, antibiotic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-infectious properties and its overall balancing effect.17

Geranium essential oil can be beneficial to individuals suffering from nerve pain (neuropathy) where it is applied on the skin directly to relieve the pain, particularly that associated with shingles, a viral disease known for its painful blistering skin rash.18

In addition, because of the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of Geranium essential oil on microglial cells and hence its potential benefits in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases where neuroinflammation is part of the pathophysiology, geranium essential oil has steadily gained the interest of the research community and medical profession.19

In the study of Pattnaik, Subramanyam, and Kole (1996), geranium essential oil was harmful to twelve bacterial strains out of the twenty-two bacteria evaluated, including Grampositive cocci and rods and Gram-negative rods, and was inhibitory against twelve fungi.20

The anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects of geranium essential oil altogether present treatment to individuals with diseases of bacterial or inflammatory etiology.

For instance, geranium essential oil (Geranium robertianum) in conjunction with essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) can diminish the symptoms of acute external otitis (viz., tenderness, itching, redness, edema, and discharge) with proven efficacy that is even equal to ciprofloxacin, an antibiotic.21

I have found research regarding pain, and PTSD that was quoted in a past article on the SJMO website:

Aromatherapy has major effects on decreasing pain and depression levels, and can be a useful nursing intervention for arthritis patients.  The essential oils used were lavender, marjoram, eucalyptus, rosemary, and peppermint.22

Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.  Essential oils blended with lavender (Lavandula officinalis), clary sage (Salvia sclarea) and marjoram (Origanum majorana).23

Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis an Pain.24

Vitamins and supplements research in neuropathy.25

Alpha Lipoic Acid can help those suffering from diabetic neuropathy by positively influencing the metabolism of glucose.(1)  improves the flow of blood to the nerves.(2)  A dose of just 600 mg a day taken for 4 years improved symptoms and slowed down the progression of neuropathy.(3)

B-Vitamins can significantly relieve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy.(4)(5).  Vitamin B12 can extenuate nerve damage caused by neuropathy by activating a chemical signal, which helps nerves to regenerate.(6)  Combinations of Vitamin B12 and 6 (methylcobalmin, folic acid and pyridoxal) have been found to improve symptoms and maintain the health of nerves in the extremities.(7).  Taken orally at 1500 mcg a day, research has found that it improves symptoms including numbness, pain and gait and it also proved more effective than notriptylene, a commonly prescribed antidepressant to treat neuropathic pain.(8)

Vitamin E alone can improve peripheral neuropathy symptoms and improve nerve function and health in those with type 2 diabetes.(9)

A deficiency in Vitamin D may be a risk factor in peripheral diabetic neuropathy.  A deficiency is typically present in those with type 1 and 2 diabetes and is even more common in those suffering neuropathy symptoms.  One study published in 2008 was carried out on 51 patients and found that supplementing with Vitamin D reduced pain levels by up to 50%.(10)

Acetyl l-Carnitine might help increase insulin resistance, allow the cells to utilize glucose effectively and boost nerve regeneration.(11)  And helps reduce pain, improves the sensation of vibration in the limbs and helps nerves to regenerate. (11,12)

N-acetyl cysteine protects the nerves from oxidative stress and damage.(13)

Curcumin might be able to reduce pain signals caused by damaged nerves as well as preventing oxidative damage of the nerves.(14)

Resveratol combined with insulin reduced sensitivity to pains.(15)

Peppermint research on pain with cancer patients.26

Results from NCBI:

“…This proof-of-concept study indicates that topical menthol has potential as a novel analgesic therapy for cancer treatment-related neuropathic pain. Improvements in patient-rated measures are supported by changes in objective measures of physical function and sensation. Further systematic evaluation of efficacy is required.”

A novel treatment of postherpetic neuralgia using peppermint oil.27

“…The authors believe this is the first evidence of peppermint oil (or menthol) having a strong analgesic effect on neuropathic pain.”

Nerve Injuries in Surgery and Nerve and/or Spinal Cord Complications.28

A nerve that is injured from compression (a common scenario with a disc herniation or bone spur) may not fully recover even after surgery that was designed to decompress the nerve.  Under very careful and meticulous surgical manipulation, a nerve can still become damaged.  Pain can be from three causes:

  1. Instrumentation (Instrumentation can also cause nerve irritation or damage).
  2. Cervical Cord and Root Injuries (Some patients have such tight (stenotic) canals that the act of opening the canal to decompress the spinal cord can cause injury).
  3. Arachnoiditis (Arachnoiditisis inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the nerves in the canal).

There are three membranes, the dura mater, pia mater and the arachnoid that surround the spinal cord and nerves

1. Dural Tear/Leak

During spine surgery, there exists the possibility that a small rent (or tear) of the dura will occur.  Most commonly, it occurs when attempting to remove material such as bone, ligament (ligamentum flavum), cyst, or disc material that is scarred or stuck to the dura. The incidence of dural tear increases with a history of prior surgery in the same area from scar formation.  Symptoms of a dural leak: most commonly, patients describe a positional headache in which standing aggravates and laying down improves and/or resolves the headache.  Other commonly reported symptoms include the following: nausea, dizziness, ringing in the ears and a feeling of malaise/fatigue.  Physical exam findings may note a swollen incision.

Treatment for dural leak

Further treatments, if a dural leak were to persist despite primary repair during surgery, include the following: blood patch, use of caffeine, and consideration of a ‘diverting drain’.  On rare occasions, re-operation must be considered.

Repair of the dura mater with processed collagen devices.29

From NCBI:

“..These measured differences influenced device intraoperative handling and installation as well as the post-operative biological response, where differences in device resorption, cell penetration, vascularization, and collagen remodeling were observed.”

Basically it shows the importance of collagen relating with dura mater.  Similar to disk degeneration, basically the repair of the tissue is needed, and usually through surgery.

The effect of aroma inhalation method on stress responses of nursing students.30

In the experimental group, aromas were given using an aroma lamp, lavender, peppermint, rosemary and Clary-Sage. In the control group, the treatment was not administered.  As a result of administering aroma inhalation to nursing students, their physical symptoms decreased, their anxiety scores were low, and their perceived stress scores were low, showing that aroma inhalation could be a very effective stress management method.” Frankincense use against Cerebral Ischemic injury.31

Given the use of the Boswellia resin to treat all kinds of injuries as well as inflammatory conditions, the effects of its major anti-inflammatory constituent, IA mice following head trauma was examined.  Its anti-inflammatory effects were thus associated with improved neurobehavio, on ral and cognitive functions in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury (Pettigrew et al., 2008).

Effects of olfactory stimulation on the vigilance performance of individuals with brain injury 32

“..Observers with brain injury and control participants performed a vigilance task during which they received periodic whiffs of unscented air or air scented with peppermint. Under both fragrance conditions, controls reduced the frequency of commissive errors (false alarms) over the course of the vigil, an adaptive strategy given the low probability of signals employed (0.04). The false alarm rate of observers with brain injury increased precipitously toward the end of the vigil in the unscented air condition. However, exposure to the scent of peppermint rendered the false alarm scores of observers with brain injury similar to that of controls, a result which is consistent with evidence that olfactory stimulation activates brain areas vital for planning and judgment…”

Regarding NSAIDS for pain, I referenced an article a few years back on the effects of NSAIDS.33:

Even at normal NSAID dosages, people with compromised kidney function can develop NSAID toxicity”.

1. Adverse effects of NSAIDs cause 103,000 hospitalizations and 16,500 deaths per year in the United States.

2. In patients with such a history, however, use of NSAIDs (aside from low-dose aspirin) was associated with more than 10-fold increase in heart failure.

3. “You may as well wear a sign, ‘Please kill my kidneys’”(4, Rice University).

St. Jude’s Miracle Oil®.34

Regarding Neuropathy, or nerve pain, tingling, etc., I have received testimonials from those with pinched nerves, degenerated disk pain, muscle pain, and I remember almost two years ago Jiu-jitsu Master Carlos Machado and I both had a pinched nerve, mine due to training, his due to a chronic nerve pain he had for years.  The Miracle oil we used to apply on the direct area (shoulder, arm, etc.), and it did provide relief. We did it down the spine and what a difference!  Now I apply the oil directly on the spinal cord area of the back from the neck to the waist.  This way the oil seeps through the skin and can help relieve pain directly to the spinal cord.  A goal of ours would be to do more research, more trials in this area.  For medical references, are there any medical references to pain in the medical journals regarding the 9 oils we use in our Miracle oil product?  Unlike many products, we do not make claims of cures or medical treatments, as we note in our disclaimer below.  However, it is interesting to look at ncbi and pubmed references to pain.  We refer to medical journals on each of our 9 oils in St. Jude’s Miracle Oil®:

Wintergreen acts as an anti-inflammatory agent (1-4).

The medicinal properties of peppermint oil are analgesic, anti-septic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial, among others (5).

Lavender has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties (6), and pain relief assessment (7).

Eucalyptus Blue has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties (8).

Clove bud has anti-infectious properties include: anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal effects (9-10).

Geranium has shown temporary relief of neuralgia pain (11).

Clary Sage in pain relief on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea (Painful menstration) (12).

Frankincense was used for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (13)

Myrrh oil has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity (14).

In closing on this article, I have to make another point that may be just as important as the research in here with nerve pain.  The CDC reported the major causes of death in the USA are from:

Heart disease: 611,105

Cancer: 584,881

Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 149,205

Accidents (unintentional injuries): 130,557

How many people think nutrition is related to nerve pain, or look at the correlation with surgeries? Let’s look at actual medical references.35:

Skeletal diseases may be induced by malnutrition that involves certain nutrients, notably calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, but also iodine, copper, zinc, manganese, fluorine, silicon, vitamin A and perhaps vitamin C, as well as protein and energy. The number of these nutrients.

Malnourished patients are more likely to have complications following total knee or hip replacement surgeries than morbidly obese patients, according to new research from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

The findings are being presented at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meeting, and their interactions is so large that dietary intervention in bone abnormalities is likely to be most effective if directed at consumption of a diet that is completely balanced for growth, maturity, old age, or stress.

I have many students and customers from the USA that keep purchasing the oil to help whether it smells good, sinuses, pain, or whatever they use it for.  We get orders from the UK, Australia too.  Even NBA players use our product. When I speak to the blind, many do not know a majority of blindness is preventable.

Did you know, according to the World Health Organization, that 80% of all visual impairment can be avoided or cured?

Read it: Reference:

You can also read testimonials, before and after videos or pics on facebook for SJMO:

Absorb and think,

Professor William Vandry


As referenced on another website, Essential oils do not require FDA approval, however manufacturers are not allowed to claim that they prevent or treat illness. We do not make claims such as those, but oils in our product have been used separately in clinical trials in medical journals I have researched.

Disclaimer: The information presented on this site is not intended for diagnostic or treatment purposes. Please consult your own physician for medical advice or services. The information provided on this website is intended for informational purposes only, and should not be considered a replacement for the expert advice of a qualified health practitioner., and makes no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information on this site and will not be liable for any errors, omissions, or delays in this information or any losses, injuries, or damages arising from its display or use. All information is provided on an as-is basis.


  1. (American Academy of Pain Medicine [AAPM], 2011)
  2. (Dickson, Head, Gitlow, & Osbahr, 2010, p. 1637). (Bennett, 1998, p. 104)
  3. (International Association for the Study of Pain [IASP], 2011)
  4. (falls, sports-related injuries, accidents, fractures, phantom limb pain, spinal cord compressions, complex regional pain syndrome, etc.)
  5. (Lindsay, Rodgers, Savath, & Hettinger, 2010, figure 1)

(The Northern California Chapter of the Neuropathy Association, 2008, p. 1-8). (Peppin, 2011, p. 1-4)

  1. Aggarwal, B. B., Prasad, S., Reuter, S., Kannappan, R., Yadev, V. R., Park, B.,…Sung, B. (20011). Identification of novel anti-inflammatory agents from Ayurvedic medicine for prevention of chronic diseases: “Reverse pharmacology” and “Bedside to bench” approach. Curr Drug Targets, 12(11), 1595-1653. Retrieved from
  2. Hong, C. Z., & Shellock, F. G. (1991, February). Effects of a topically applied counterirritant (Eucalyptamint) on cutaneous blood flow and on skin and muscle temperatures. A
  3. (“Neuragen PN,” 2010, p. 2)
  4. (Maruyama et al., 2006, p. 4-7). Maruyama, N., Ishibashi, H., Hu, W., Morofuji, S., Inouye, S., Yamaguchi, H., & Abe, S. (2006, February). Suppression of carrageenan- and collagen II- induced inflammation in mice by geranium oil. Mediators of Inflammation, 2006(3), 1-7. doi: 10.1155/MI/2006/62537
  5. (Hur, Lee, Seong, & Lee, 2011, p. 2).4, Hur, M., Lee, M. S., Seong, K., & Lee, M. (2011). Aromatherapy massage on the abdomen for alleviating menstrual pain in high school girls: A preliminary controlled clinical study. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 1-3. doi: 10.1155/2012/187163 International Association for the Study of Pain. (2011). Neuropathic Pain. Retrieved from
  1. (Buckle, 1999, table 4). Buckle, J. (1999, September). Use of aromatherapy as a complimentary treatment for chronic pain. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 5(5), 1078-6791. Retrieved from Medline with Full Text, EBSCOhost
  2. Greenway, f, Frome & Engels, T. (2003). Temporary relief of postherpetic neuralgia pain with topical geranium oil. American J of Medicine, 115, 586-587.
  1. (Rose, 2006, p. 54-5).6. Rose, J. (2006, June/July). Aromatic solutions: Herbs & aromatherapy for pain. Massage and Bodywork, 52-6. Retrieved from
  2. (Shutes, n.d., p. 7-28). Shutes, J. (n.d.). Advanced Aromatherapy Certification Program. : Author. Terpines and their derivatives (White Paper). (n.d.). Retrieved from Virtual Centre for Innovative Learning Technologies at the University of Mauritius Website:
  3. (Worwood, 1991, p. 39). Worwood, V. A. (1991). The complete book of essential oils & aromatherapy. Novato, CA: New World Library.
  4. McKay and Blumberg (2006, p.619) McKay, D. L., & Blumberg, J. B. (2006, August 20). A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.). Phytotherapy Research, 20(8), 619-33. doi: 10.1002/ptr.1936
  5. (Sharafi, Rasooli, Owila, Tachizadeh, & Astaneh, 2010, p. 147). Sharafi, S. M., Rasooli, I., Owila, P., Tachizadeh, M., & Astaneh, S. D. (2010, July 30). Protective effects of bioactive phytochemicals of Mentha piperita with multiple health potentials. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 6(23), 147-153. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.66926
  6. Geranium (Bourbon) 100% Pure Therapeutic Grade Essential Oil- 10 ml. Edens Garden. Retrieved 5 May 2013 from  [5] Geranium macrorrhizum. Wikipedia. Retrieved 5 May 2013 from
  7. Rose geranium oil. WebMD, LLC. Retrieved 5 May 2013 from
  8. Elmann A., Mordechay S., Rindner M., & Ravid U. (2010). Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of geranium oil in microglial cells. Journal of Functional Foods, 2: 17-22. Retrieved 3 May 2013 from
  9. Pattnaik S., Subramanyam V. R., & Kole C. (1996). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro. Microbios, 86(349): 237-246. Retrieved 3 May 2013 from
  10. Panahi Y. et al. (2012). Investigation of the effectiveness of Syzygium aromaticum, Lavandula angustifolia and Geranium robertianum essential oils in the treatment of acute external otitis: A comparative trial with ciprofloxacin. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, pii: S1684-1182(12)00214-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jmii.2012.10.002. Retrieved 5 May 2013 from
  11. (College of Nursing, The Catholic University of Korea, Korea, Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2005 Feb;35(1):186-94.)
  12. (Department of Applied Cosmetology, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan.  J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2012 May;38(5):817-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2011.01802.x. Epub  2012 Mar 22)
  13. Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT06520.

2013 Jun 29. pii: S0304-3959(13)00364-3. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.06d other painful conditions.

  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
  2. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.


  1. Cancer treatment-related neuropathic pain: proof of concept study with menthol—a TRPM8 agonist.
  2. A novel treatment of postherpetic neuralgia using peppermint oil. Davies SJ1, Harding LM, Baranowski AP.,
  4. Repair of the dura mater with processed collagen devices. Zerris VA1, James KS, Roberts JB, Bell E, Heilman CB.
  5. The effect of aroma inhalation method on stress responses of nursing students,
  6. Protective effects of incensole acetate on cerebral ischemic injury,
  7. Effects of olfactory stimulation on the vigilance performance of individuals with brain injury,
  8. References:
  1. (Whelton A et al 1991).
  2. An estimated 10-20% of NSAID patients experience dyspepsia, and NSAID-associated upper gastrointestinal adverse events are estimated to result in 103,000 hospitalizations and 16,500 deaths per year in the United States, and represent 43% of drug-related emergency visits. Many of these events are avoidable; a review of physician visits and prescriptions estimated that unnecessary prescriptions for NSAIDs were written in 42% of visits. Kearney, Pm; Baigent, C; Godwin, J; Halls, H; Emberson, Jr; Patrono, C (June 2006).
  3. “Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials”(Free full text). BMJ (Clinical research ed.)332 (7553): 1302–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7553.1302.ISSN 0959-8138PMC 1473048PMID 167405583-Page, J; Henry, D (March 2000). “Consumption of NSAIDs and the development of congestive heart failure in elderly patients: an under recognized public health problem” (Free full text). Archives of internal medicine 160 (6): 777–84.doi:10.1001/archinte.160.6.777ISSN 0003-9926PMID 10737277.
  1. St. Jude’s Miracle Oil® References:
  1. Methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-lactoside, a novel salicylic acid analogue, acts as an anti-inflammatory agent on microglia and astrocytes.Lan X, Liu R, Sun L, Zhang T, Du G.J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Aug 11;8:98. doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-8-98.
  2. A novel naturally occurring salicylic acid analogue acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. Zhang T, Sun L, Liu R, Zhang D, Lan X, Huang C, Xin W, Wang C, Zhang D, Du G.Mol Pharm. 2012 Mar 5;9(3):671-7. doi: 10.1021/mp2003779. Epub 2012 Feb 15.
  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl salicylate glycosides isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder.Zhang D, Liu R, Sun L, Huang C, Wang C, Zhang DM, Zhang TT, Du GH.  Molecules. 2011 May 9;16(5):3875-84. doi: 10.3390/molecules16053875
  4. Evaluation of the new anti-inflammatory compound ethyl salicylate 2-O-β-d-glucoside and its possible mechanism of action.  Xin W, Huang C, Zhang X, Zhang G, Ma X, Sun L, Wang C, Zhang D, Zhang T, Du G.Int Immunopharmacol. 2012 Dec 4;15(2):303-308. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2012.11.014.
  5. Mullally BH, James JA,CoulterWA,LindenGJ. The efficacy of a herbal-based toothpaste on the control of plaque and gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol. 1995;22(9):686–9.
  6. Hajhashemi, V., Ghannadi, A., & Sharif, B. (2003). Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of lavandula angustifolia mill. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89(1), 67-71.(Lavender)
  7. Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.  Ou MC, Hsu TF, Lai AC, Lin YT, Lin CC.  SourceDepartment of Applied Cosmetology,HungkuangUniversity,Taichung,Taiwan
  8. Phytochemical composition of Cymbopogon citratus and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oils and their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties on Wistar rats.  Gbenou JD, Ahounou JF, Akakpo HB, Laleye A, Yayi E, Gbaguidi F, Baba-Moussa L, Darboux R, Dansou P, Moudachirou M, Kotchoni SO.  SourceLaboratoire de Pharmacognosie et des Huiles Essentielles, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey Calavi, 01 BP 918,Cotonou,Benin.
  9. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species Euge´ nia Pinto,1 Luı´s Vale-Silva,1 Carlos Cavaleiro2 and Lı´gia Salgueiro2
  10. Curr Med Chem. 2003 May;10(10):813-29.Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils.  Kalemba D, Kunicka A.SourceInstitute of General Food Chemistry, TechnicalUniversity of Lodz,Poland.
  11. 20Greenway, f, Frome & Engels, T. (2003). Temporary relief of postherpetic neuralgia pain with topical geranium oil. American J of Medicine, 115, 586-587.
  12. Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.  Ou MC, Hsu TF, Lai AC, Lin YT, Lin CC.  SourceDepartment of Applied Cosmetology, HungkuangUniversity, Taichung, Taiwan.
  13. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 Jan 30. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial.  Source Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Pune, School of Biomedical Sciences, Symbiosis International University, Pune, BJ Medical College, Pune, Department of Rheumatology, Nizam Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, SPARC Institute, Mumbai, Department of Medicine, KEM Hospital, Mumbai and Symbiosis International University, Pune, India
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