Essential oils vs. viruses, MDR bacteria, MRSA, Staph, E coli, Pseudomonas, Candida

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Information within this site is for educational purposes only. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration has not evaluated statements about the product efficacy. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Research on essential oils is limited, and more funding would be appropriate.  Below are medical journals from NCBI and PubMed medical journals specifically correlating essential oils effect on above viruses, strains, etc.  Our research is comparing the oils specifically from St. Jude’s Miracle oilTM (peppermint, eucalyptus, lavender, geranium, clary sage, clove bud, myrrh, and frankincense and wintergreen) and effect on viruses, MDR, MSSA, MRSA,  bacteria, staph and others.

1. Peppermint effect on Influenza, viruses

2. Eucalyptus antibacterial effect against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria

3. Lavender effect against MSSA and MRSA

4. Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) anti-bacterial activity

5. Thyme and Eucalyptus effect against MRSA

6. Lavender against antibiotic-restistant bacteria

7. Lavender oil, petigrain oil, clary sage oil, ylang ylang oil and jasmine combination against Staph

8. Antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus

9. Essential oils (including Eucalyptus, Lavender, Clove Bud, Peppermint)  effective antiseptic topical treatment for MRSA and antimycotic-resistant Candida species

10. Black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils have potential against  Staphylococcus aureus

11. Myrrh antibacterial, antifungal activity against pathogenic strains E coli, Staph, Pseudomonas and Candida

12. Frankincense (Boswellia serrata) effective against Staphylococcus

13. Wintergreen acts as an anti-inflammatory  and antimicrobial agent

1. Peppermint effect on Influenza, viruses

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2957173/

Mentha piperita, family Labiatae, is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant widely used in Ayurveda [78]. It contains about 1.2%–1.5% essential oil. The volatile oil, also known as menthae piperitae aetheroleum, contains 30–70% free menthol, menthol esters and more than 40 other compounds. The principal components of the oil are menthol (29%), menthone (20%–30%), and menthyl acetate (3%–10%). Pharmaceutical grade oil, produced by distilling the fresh aerial parts of the plant at the beginning of the flowering cycle, is standardized to contain no less than 44% menthol, 15%–30% menthone, and 5% esters, in addition to various terpenoids. Other compounds found in it are flavonoids (12%), polymerized polyphenols (19%), carotenes, tocopherols, betaine, and choline [79]. The antimicrobial and antiviral activity of menthol has been reported. Mentha piperita has significant antiviral activity [80]. Menthol is virucidal against influenza, herpes, and other viruses in vitro. Aqueous extracts of peppermint leaves exhibited antiviral activity against Influenza A, Newcastle disease virus, Herpes simplex virus, and Vaccinia virus in egg and cell-culture systems [81]. The oil contains terpenoids such as α-pinene or β-pinene, α-phellandren, and also ester-connected with menthol or free acetic acid and isovaleric acid, which are mainly responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the herb [82].

78. Peirce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New   York, NY, USA: William Morrow; 1999.

79. MurrayMT. The Healing Power of Herbs: The Enlightened Person’s Guide to the Wonders of Medicinal Plants. Vol. 25. Rocklin, Calif, USA: Prima; 1995.

80. Herrmann EC, Jr., Kucera LS. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1967;124(3):874–878. [PubMed]

81. Herrmann EC, Jr., Kucera LS. Antiviral substances in plants of the mint family (labiatae). 3. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) and other mint plants. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1967;124(3):874–878. [PubMed]

82. Valsaraj R, Pushpangadan P, Smitt UW, Adsersen A, Nyman U. Antimicrobial screening of selected medicinal plants from India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1997;58(2):75–83. [PubMed]

2. Eucalyptus antibacterial effect against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21591991

Pharm Biol. 2011 Sep;49(9):893-9. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2011.553625. Epub 2011 May 19.

Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus and of selected components against multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens.

Mulyaningsih S1, Sporer F, Reichling J, Wink M.

Author information

1Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, HeidelbergUniversity, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg, Germany.

Abstract

CONTEXT: Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Myrtaceae) is the principal source of eucalyptus oil in the world and has been used as an antiseptic and for relieving symptoms of cough, cold, sore throat, and other infections. The oil, well known as ‘eucalyptus oil’ commercially, has been produced from the leaves. Biological properties of the essential oil of fruits from E. globulus have not been investigated much.

OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to examine the antimicrobial activity of the fruit oil of E. globulus (EGF) and the leaf oils of E. globulus (EGL), E. radiata Sieber ex DC (ERL) and E. citriodora Hook (ECL) against multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Furthermore, this study was attempted to characterize the oils as well as to establish a relationship between the chemical composition and the corresponding antimicrobial properties.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by GLC-MS. The oils and isolated major components of the oils were tested against MDR bacteria using the broth microdilution method.

RESULTS: EGF exerted the most pronounced activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ~ 250 µg/ml). EGF mainly consisted of aromadendrene (31.17%), whereas ECL had citronellal (90.07%) and citronellol (4.32%) as the major compounds. 1,8-cineole was most abundant in EGL (86.51%) and ERL (82.66%).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The activity of the oils can be ranked as EGF > ECL > ERL ~ EGL. However, all the oils and the components were hardly active against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Aromadendrene was found to be the most active, followed by citronellol, citronellal and 1,8-cineole

3. Lavender effect against MSSA and MRSA

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19249919

J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Mar;15(3):275-9. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0268.

The antimicrobial activity of high-necrodane and other lavender oils on methicillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA).

Roller S1, Ernest N, Buckle J.

Author information

1Faculty of Health and Human Sciences, ThamesValleyUniversity, Brentford, UK. [email protected]

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of several lavender oils, used singly and in combination, on methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA).

METHODS: Four chemically characterized essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia, L. latifolia, L. stoechas, and a necrodane-rich L. luisieri were assessed for their antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method.

RESULTS: All four lavender oils inhibited growth of both MSSA and MRSA by direct contact but not in the vapor phase. Inhibition zones ranged from 8 to 30 mm in diameter at oil doses ranging from 1 to 20 microL, respectively, demonstrating a dose response. At any single dose, the extent of inhibition was very similar irrespective of the chemical composition of the oils or the strain of S. aureus used. Several binary combinations of the oils were tested, and the results showed that the necrodane-rich L. luisieri oil interacted synergistically with L. stoechas (high in 1,8-cineole, fenchone, and camphor) and L. langustifolia (rich in linalool and linalyl acetate) to produce larger inhibition zones than those produced using each oil individually.

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that combinations of lavender oils should be investigated further for possible use in antibacterial products.

Burns. 2004 Dec;30(8):772-7.

4. Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) anti-bacterial activity

The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.

Edwards-Jones V1, Buck R, Shawcross SG, Dawson MM, Dunn K.

Author information

1Department of Biological Sciences, the ManchesterMetropolitanUniversity, Chester Street, Manchester, M15GD, UK. [email protected]

Abstract

Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapors as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection.

5. Thyme and Eucalyptus effect against MRSA

2010 Feb;17(2):142-5. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2009.05.007. Epub 2009 Jul 2.

Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Tohidpour A1, Sattari M, Omidbaigi R, Yadegar A, Nazemi J.

Author information

1Department of Bacteriology, School of Medical Sciences, TarbiatModaresUniversity, P.O. Box: 14115-158, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Antimicrobial properties of plants essential oils (EOs) have been investigated through several observations and clinical studies which purpose them as potential tools to overcome the microbial drug resistance problem. The aim of this research is to study the antibacterial effect of two traditional plants essential oils, Thymus vulgaris and Eucalyptus globulus against clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other standard bacterial strains through disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis examined the chemical composition of the oils. Results revealed both of oils to possess degrees of antibacterial activity against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. T. vulgaris EO showed better inhibitory effects than E. globulus essential oil. GC analysis of T. vulgaris resulted in thymol as the oil major compound whereas GC/MS assay exhibited eucalyptol as the most abundant constitute of E. globulus EO. These results support previous studies on these oils and suggest an additional option to treat MRSA infections. Clinical and further analytical trials of these data are necessary to confirm the obtained outcomes.

Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

6. Lavender against antibiotic-restistant bacteria

Nat Prod Res. 2014 Aug 30:1-4.

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Lavandula coronopifolia essential oil against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Ait Said L1, Zahlane K, Ghalbane I, El Messoussi S, Romane A, Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L.

Author information

1a Laboratory of Molecular and Ecophysiology Modeling, Faculty of Sciences-Semlalia , CadiAyyadUniversity , Marrakech , Morocco.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinicalinfections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO.

7. lavender oil, petigrain oil, clary sage oil, ylang ylang oil and jasmine combination against Staph

See comment in PubMed Commons below

Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Oct;7(10):1401-4.

Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation.

Tadtong S1, Suppawat S, Tintawee A, Saramas P, Jareonvong S, Hongratanaworakit T.

Author information

1Faculty of Pharmacy, Srinakharinwirot University, 63 Moo 7, Rangsit-Nakhon-nayok Rd., Ongkharak, Nakhon-nayok, 26120, Thailand. [email protected]

Abstract

Antimicrobial activities of two blended essential oil preparations comprising lavender oil, petigrain oil, clary sage oil, ylang ylang oil and jasmine oil were evaluated against various pathogenic microorganisms. Both preparations showed antimicrobial activity in the agar disc diffusion assay against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and S. epidermidis isolated strain, the fungus, Candida albicans ATCC10231, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, but showed no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these preparations was evaluated. By the broth microdilution assay, preparation 1, comprising lavender oil, clary sage oil, and ylang ylang oil (volume ratio 3:4:3), exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than preparation 2, which was composed of petigrain oil, clary sage oil, and jasmine oil (volume ratio 3:4:3). Moreover, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (Sigma fic) of preparation 1 expressed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against the tested microorganisms (Sigma fic<l). The blended essential oil preparations, characterized for their components by GC/MS, contained linalyl acetate, and linalool as major components. Our experiments showed that the differential antimicrobial effect of either blended oil preparations or single/pure essential oils may be influenced by the amount of linalool and linalyl acetate, and the number of active components in either the blended preparations or single/pure essential oils. In addition, blended oil preparations expressed synergistic antimicrobial effect by the accumulation of active components such as linalool and linalyl acetate and combining active constituents of more than one oil.

8. Antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus

See comment in PubMed Commons below

Molecules. 2012 Aug 28;17(9):10276-91. doi: 10.3390/molecules170910276.

Antimicrobial activity of geranium oil against clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

Bigos M1, Wasiela M, Kalemba D, Sienkiewicz M.

Author information

1Medical and Sanitary Microbiology Department, Medical University of Lodz, Hallera Sq. 1, Lodz 90-647, Poland. [email protected]

Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from Pelargonium graveolens Ait. (family Geraniaceae), against one standard S. aureus strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical S. aureus strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment showed that the oil from P. graveolens has strong activity against all of the clinical S. aureus isolates-including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLS(B)-positive strains-exhibiting MIC values of 0.25-2.50 μL/mLof bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment

9. Essential oils (including Eucalyptus, Lavender, Clove Bud, Peppermint)  effective antiseptic topical treatment for MRSA and antimycotic-resistant Candida species

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19473851

J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2009 Oct;37(7):392-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2009.03.017. Epub 2009 May 26.

The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections.

Warnke PH1, Becker ST, Podschun R, Sivananthan S, Springer IN, Russo PA, Wiltfang J, Fickenscher H, Sherry E.

Author information

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Kiel, Germany. [email protected]

Abstract

Hospital-acquired infections and antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to be major health concerns worldwide. Particularly problematic is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its ability to cause severe soft tissue, bone or implant infections. First used by the Australian Aborigines, Tea tree oil and Eucalyptus oil (and several other essential oils) have each demonstrated promising efficacy against several bacteria and have been used clinically against multi-resistant strains. Several common and hospital-acquired bacterial and yeast isolates (6 Staphylococcus strains including MRSA, 4 Streptococcus strains and 3 Candida strains including Candida krusei) were tested for their susceptibility for Eucalyptus, Tea tree, Thyme white, Lavender, Lemon, Lemongrass, Cinnamon, Grapefruit, Clove Bud, Sandalwood, Peppermint, Kunzea and Sage oil with the agar diffusion test. Olive oil, Paraffin oil, Ethanol (70%), Povidone iodine, Chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) served as controls. Large prevailing effective zones of inhibition were observed for Thyme white, Lemon, Lemongrass and Cinnamon oil. The other oils also showed considerable efficacy. Remarkably, almost all tested oils demonstrated efficacy against hospital-acquired isolates and reference strains, whereas Olive and Paraffin oil from the control group produced no inhibition. As proven in vitro, essential oils represent a cheap and effective antiseptic topical treatment option even for antibiotic-resistant strains as MRSA and antimycotic-resistant Candida species.

10. Black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils have potential against  Staphylococcus aureus

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Jul 16

Anti-biofilm, anti-hemolysis, and anti-virulence activities of black pepper, cananga, myrrh oils, and nerolidol against Staphylococcus aureus.

Lee K1, Lee JH, Kim SI, Cho MH, Lee J.

Author information

1School of Chemical Engineering, YeungnamUniversity, Gyeongsan, 712-749, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Unlike antibiotics, anti-virulence approaches target bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability, which may be less prone to develop drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that produces diverse virulence factors, such as α-toxin, which is hemolytic. Also, biofilm formation of S. aureus is one of the mechanisms of its drug resistance. In this study, anti-biofilm screening of 83 essential oils showed that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and their common constituent cis-nerolidol at 0.01 % markedly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation. Furthermore, the three essential oils and cis-nerolidol at below 0.005 % almost abolished the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that black pepper oil down-regulated the expressions of the α-toxin gene (hla), the nuclease genes, and the regulatory genes. In addition, black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and cis-nerolidol attenuated S. aureus virulence in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This study is one of the most extensive on anti-virulence screening using diverse essential oils and provides comprehensive data on the subject. This finding implies other beneficial effects of essential oils and suggests that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils have potential use as anti-virulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infections.

11. Myrrh antibacterial, antifungal activity against pathogenic strains E coli, Staph, Pseudomonas and Candida

2000 May;66(4):356-8.

Local anaesthetic, antibacterial and antifungal properties of sesquiterpenes from myrrh.

Dolara P, Corte B, Ghelardini C, Pugliese AM, Cerbai E, Menichetti S, Lo Nostro A.

Abstract

We extracted, purified and characterized 8 sesquiterpene fractions from Commyphora molmol. In particular, we focused our attention on a mixture of furanodiene-6-one and methoxyfuranoguaia-9-ene-8-one, which showed antibacterial and antifungal activity against standard pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 2.8 micrograms/ml. These compounds also had local anaesthetic activity, blocking the inward sodium current of excitable mammalian membranes

12. Frankincense (Boswellia serrata) effective against Staphylococcus

BMC Microbiol. 2011 Mar 16;11:54. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-54.

Antistaphylococcal and biofilm inhibitory activities of acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid from Boswellia serrata.

Raja AF1, Ali F, Khan IA, Shawl AS, Arora DS, Shah BA, Taneja SC.

Author information

1Microbiology Unit, Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Sanatnagar, Srinagar, 190005, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Boswellic acids are pentacyclic triterpenes, which are produced in plants belonging to the genus Boswellia. Boswellic acids appear in the resin exudates of the plant and it makes up 25-35% of the resin. β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid have been implicated in apoptosis of cancer cells, particularly that of brain tumors and cells affected by leukemia or colon cancer. These molecules are also associated with potent antimicrobial activities. The present study describes the antimicrobial activities of boswellic acid molecules against 112 pathogenic bacterial isolates including ATCC strains. Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), which exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity, was further evaluated in time kill studies, postantibiotic effect (PAE) and biofilm susceptibility assay. The mechanism of action of AKBA was investigated by propidium iodide uptake, leakage of 260 and 280 nm absorbing material assays.

RESULTS: AKBA was found to be the most active compound showing an MIC range of 2-8 μg/ml against the entire gram positive bacterial pathogens tested. It exhibited concentration dependent killing of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 up to 8 × MIC and also demonstrated postantibiotic effect (PAE) of 4.8 h at 2 × MIC. Furthermore, AKBA inhibited the formation of biofilms generated by S. aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and also reduced the preformed biofilms by these bacteria. Increased uptake of propidium iodide and leakage of 260 and 280 nm absorbing material by AKBA treated cells of S aureus indicating that the antibacterial mode of action of AKBA probably occurred via disruption of microbial membrane structure.

CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the potential use of AKBA in treating S. aureus infections. AKBA can be further exploited to evolve potential lead compounds in the discovery of new anti-Gram-positive and anti-biofilm agents.

13. Wintergreen acts as an anti-inflammatory  and antimicrobial agent

Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl salicylate glycosides isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder.Zhang D, Liu R, Sun L, Huang C, Wang C, Zhang DM, Zhang TT, Du GH.  Molecules. 2011 May 9;16(5):3875-84. doi: 10.3390/molecules16053875